[42] Rewi escaped through the swamp, unharmed, escorted by a 12-man bodyguard. The British writer and popular historian Charles Allen has remarked that, although the Younghusband Mission did inflict "considerable material damage on Tibet and its people", it was damage that paled into insignificance when compared "to the invasion of Tibet by the Chinese People's Liberation Army in 1951 and the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1967". At midday many attempted to break out of the pā through the cordon at the east, but were driven back twice, suffering the loss of one of their chiefs. He said the Commissariat Transport Corps—established in mid-1861, almost two years before the invasion began—was the "vital kernel" because of its efforts in building the southern road and providing a separate military supply train. of a violent raid on Auckland by Kingite Māori. Two more waves of attack were similarly repulsed, with several casualties, including officers. [47], Belich has described the Waikato campaign as one of the best-prepared and best organised ever undertaken by the British Army, proving that many lessons had been learned from the logistical fiasco of the Crimean War. Two hundred of Cameron's troops, with the Forest Rangers, became involved in a running battle with the attackers and killed an estimated 41 Māori, losing six of their own men. © Crown Copyright. On the way he encountered a group of about 140 of the dispersed Paterangi army, mainly warriors from distant Tuhoe and Ngati Raukawa iwi. Carey, keen to surprise the Kingites, immediately began organising an expedition and at midnight the first of three separate columns, comprising members of the 40th, 65th and 18th Royal Irish Regiments, as well as Forest Rangers and Waikato Militia, set out for Ōrākau with two Armstrong six-pounders, arriving before daybreak. By the instigation of some of you, officers and soldiers were murdered at Taranaki. The Kingites held their fire until the attackers were within 50 metres, then fired in two volleys, halting the advance. The Crown expressed profound regret and apologised unreservedly for the invasion and the crippling effects it had on the welfare of the Waikato-Tainui people. The pā formed part of a long line of pā the Kingites called aukati, or boundary. The land immediately to the south of the pa was a series of low undulating hillocks leading to swamp. On 31 October a river flotilla including Avon, the gunboats Curacoa and Pioneer and armoured barges steamed past Meremere—drawing fire from rifle pits and batteries of ships guns, some of them firing pieces of iron chain and pound weights—and landed 600 men at Takapau, 15 km upriver, ready to attack the heart of the defensive line from the rear. [46] Plans have been proposed to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the battle in 2014, with a call made for a new memorial. [52][53] The 1927 Royal Commission on Confiscated Land, chaired by senior supreme court judge Sir William Sim, concluded that although the government restored a quarter of the 1,202,172 acres (486,500 hectares) originally seized and paid almost £23,000 compensation, the Waikato confiscations had been "excessive". It involved over 12,000 British and Colonial forces against Maori forces unlikely to have numbered more than 2000 at any one time. Grey used as the trigger for the invasion Kingite rejection of his ultimatum on 9 July 1863 that all Māori living between Auckland and the Waikato take an oath of allegiance to Queen Victoria or be expelled south of the Waikato River. [2][3][13] Using what historian James Belich describes as a campaign of misinformation, Grey retained the Taranaki army and began appealing to the colonial office for more troops to avert "some great disaster", claiming tensions remained high, with a high likelihood of Māori aggression. Rewi deferred a decision until he could consult with Tamihana, the kingmaker, and set out with a small group to Tamihana's stronghold near present-day Cambridge on the upper Waikato. [9], Early on 30 March two surveyors working at Kihikihi observed through a telescope construction of entrenchments at the Ōrākau pa and immediately passed the information to Brigadier General G. J. Carey, who had been left in charge of the British forces. [51], The war and confiscation of land caused heavy economic, social and cultural damage to Waikato-Tainui. Two weeks after capturing Ngāruawāhia, Cameron's 3000-strong striking force, protected by another 4000 men, began slowly and cautiously advancing south. But the continuous arrival of regiments from overseas rapidly swelled the force. [43], Sixteen of the British forces died in the three-day battle and 53 were wounded, some of them mortally; while estimates of Māori fatalities range from 80[9] to 160,[41] with half of the casualties coming from the Urewera contingent. The Ōrākau garrison repulsed two more attempts by the Waikato militia to rush the north-west outworks, but at 4:00 pm the chiefs, realising the end was near, decided to break out. The British invasion aimed at crushing Kingite power (which European settlers saw as a threat to British authority)[3] and also at driving Waikato Māori from their territory in readiness for occupation and settlement by Europeans. The invasion of Waikato in 1863–64 by British and colonial forces aimed to destroy the aspirations of the Māori King movement to autonomy and self-determination. The History of Howick and Pukuranga and Surrounding Districts.p37. [13][19][20], Imperial troops were moved back to Taranaki as hostilities resumed and on 4 June the new British commander, Lieutenant-General Duncan Cameron, led 870 troops to attack a party of about 50 Māori on the Tataraimaka block, killing 24. Further British reinforcements arrived, including a second company of Forest Rangers, taking the British strength to almost 1500. [33], Construction of a new and even more formidable defence line began 25 km south of Ngāruawāhia, soon after the fall of Rangiriri. Because of their comparative lack of men and supplies, the KÄ«ngitanga strategy was to construct defensive lines to obstruct the British advance, an approach that had been effective in Taranaki in 1860–61. [16] Grey instead instituted a peace policy that included a system of Māori local administration in which they could participate, hoping it would encourage Māori to abandon the Kingite movement and "reduce the number of our enemies". [23][25], The bush raid was the beginning of a new Māori strategy that would drain Cameron's resources and halt his advance for another 14 weeks. The government saw its refusal to sell land as an impediment to European settlement. Reinforcements continued to arrive and within days he had 500 troops. The lack of a clear victory by imperial forces led Governor Thomas Gore Browne to turn his attention to the Waikato, the centre of the Kingite movement, where king Tāwhiaowas attracting the allegiance of increasing numbers of Māori across the North Island. [2][13][23], Cameron, a Crimean War veteran who had replaced Major-General Thomas Pratt as commander-in-chief of the British troops,[24] began the invasion with fewer than 4000 effective troops in Auckland at his disposal. The invasion of the Waikato took place over 10 months between July 1863 and April 1864. The group, many of them holding empty shotguns or tomahawks, was pursued by sword-bearing cavalry and hundreds of soldiers who fired on and bayoneted the fleeing Māori; Forest Rangers kept up the chase until dusk. Although the British relinquished the colony to the Dutch in the Treaty of Amiens … With the capture of more than 180 warriors, the battle became the most costly Māori defeat in the Waikato wars. In the centre of the main line lay a small but well-protected north-facing redoubt with several lines of concealed rifle pits at its southern side. This was because, in 1939, both France and Britain were massive colonial powers and were seen as the two most powerful countries in the world. Waikato Māori, newly unified under their own king, resisted the idea of land sales. A thousand of Cameron's men, supported by three Armstrong guns, advanced on an estimated 100 Māori manning the frontline on the morning of 22 February. Measuring about 30 metres by 12 metres, the pā was enclosed within a rectangular redoubt and contained interior bunkers, trenches, firing apertures. Shortly afterwards, Sultan Fuad I declared himself King of Egypt, but the British occupation continued, in accordance with several reserve clauses in the declaration of … On 25 August a party of Māori snatched up the rifles and ammunition from a group of 25 soldiers who were timber-felling beside the Great South Road—part of an effort to destroy cover for Māori raiders intent on mounting further ambushes—and killed two soldiers. [29] The turning point for Cameron came in late October when hundreds of Waikato militia replaced regulars at the outposts, another 500 imperial troops arrived from Australia—now giving him a striking force of almost 2000 and a total of 8000 effectives—and a second river steamer, HMS Curacoa, was brought to the front. But on 7 September a Ngāti Maniapoto war party launched an attack on that supply line, killing resident magistrate James Armitage[28]—who was supervising a shipment of stores—and burning a stores depot with 40 tons of supplies at Camerontown on the north bank of the Waikato River near Tuakau. Ngāti Maniapoto leader Rewi Maniapoto had been against building the pā at Rangiriri. Rangiriri Pā boasted steep ramparts, clever escape routes and fern-covered rifle pits. Among the dead were their leader Te Huirama, a relative of King Tāwhiao. The campaign lasted for nine months, from July 1863 to April 1864. [18] The raiders, led by Rewi Maniapoto and Wiremu KÄ«ngi, sent a message to Gorst—who was absent at the time—to quit the property or risk death; Grey recalled Gorst to Auckland soon after. Through the morning the British sap advanced close enough to the outer trenches of Ōrākau for hand-grenades to be thrown over the ramparts. 44Tukaroto Matutaera PotatauTe Wherowhero TawhiaoThe wars of the 1860s in Taranakiand Waikato and the governmentssubsequent confiscation of Maori landsaw Tawhiao and his people renderedvirtually landless and forced to retreatas wandering refugees into theheartland of Ngati Maniapoto, nowknown as the King Country.As a result of the invasion of Waikatoby British forces in 1863 on thepretext that the Waikato … As a result of this settlement the Crown agreed to return as much land as possible to Waikato and to pay compensation, and said that it sought on behalf of all New Zealanders to atone for these acknowledged injustices, and to begin the process of healing and to enter a new age of co-operation with the Kingitanga and Waikato. It is the responsibility of the user of any material to obtain clearance from the copyright holder. They killed about 30 Māori, with the surviving defenders fleeing south or towards the main redoubt. On 12 July 1863 the British army, commanded by Lieutenant General Duncan Cameron, crossed the Mangatāwhiri Stream, which marked the aukati (boundary) between the KÄ«ngitanga lands and the government-controlled area to the north. With ammunition now running very short, the Kingites—so parched they could not swallow their remaining food—began firing peach stones, 5 cm-long sections of apple tree branches and pieces of metal. The British claimed they killed 12 Māori, including two chiefs, and took 30 prisoners. Probably an equal number of injured were evacuated by canoe across Lake Waikare. The area subsequently came to be known as the King Country.[44][49]. Why did it fall? That night, Tupotahi suggested they make a breakout under cover of dark. In a report to the War Office H. Stanley-Jones, the commissary-general, described the Transport Corps as "the foundation of the whole service". They then dropped down a sloping 10-metre bank, surprising members of the 40th Regiment, who formed the south eastern edge of the cordon before running for cover in a nearby swamp. Seven Māori were killed. The subsequent war included the Battle of Rangiriri (November 1863)—which cost both sides more men than any other engagement of the New Zealand Wars[8]—and the three-day-long Battle of Ōrākau (March-April 1864), which became arguably the best-known engagement of the New Zealand Wars and which inspired two films called Rewi's Last Stand. [8] The assault force, armed with three Armstrong guns, revolvers, Enfield rifles with fixed bayonets and hand grenades, faced a Māori force of about 500 men, mostly armed with double-barreled shotguns and muskets. [31], About 3pm Cameron launched a two-hour bombardment from artillery and gunboats. The result was a Tibetan toll of about 628 dead, compared to a dozen of British injuries. There are many reasons as to why the Romans wanted to invade Britain. In late January Cameron moved his army headquarters to Te Rore, about 5 km from Paterangi, with an advance camp for 600 men positioned just 1.2 km from the pā, from where they judged the defences were "immensely strong". In 1904, British fears about a threat to her largest and most valuable colony, India, spilled over into war with India’s neighbour. The main parapet was just 1.2 metres high, the outer trench a metre deep and the entire system was surrounded by a post and three-rail fence. [11][12] They advanced to the town of Rangiaowhia, where they encountered about 100 men as well as many women and children. In c. 2300 BCE Germanic-speaking peoples migrated to Scandinavia, bringing with them their religious beliefs in fierce gods who rewarded brave heroes in battle.. By the time of the 2nd-3rd centuries CE, the Norse god Odin had been elevated to a position of supremacy in the pantheon of Scandinavian religion, and … However, he was forced to abandon both conquests before they were fully successful due to revolting in Gaul (modern-day France). He had the armoured 40-ton paddle-steamer Avon—20m long, drawing one metre of water and armed with a 12-pounder Armstrong in the bows—as well as boats, barges and canoes. [9] On 2 April he settled his troops in front of it, and prepared to shell it. [8] The 183 prisoners were held without trial on an old coal hulk in Waitematā Harbour before being moved to Kawau Island, north of Auckland, but in September 1864 they escaped and eventually made their way back to the Waikato. But the same day a Māori war party ambushed a convoy of six carts and its 50-man escort well behind British lines, at Martin's Farm near Ramarama on the Great South Road. The key conflict of the New Zealand Wars had begun. 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